初中英语语法视频讲解

篇一:初中英语语法大全【文字、图解、音视频全面解读】

英语语法是针对英语语言的语法进行的研究,指英语中语言的结构规律。包括词法和句法。英语的语法既可以是规范性的,也可以是描述性的。 这里整理了初中所需要掌握的英语语法知识:从图、文字、音视频全面讲解,以便大家学习:

初中英语语法大全图解

初中英语数词知识点

初中英语冠词知识点

初中英语代词知识

初中英语反身代词的知识点

初中英语物主代词知识点

初中英语八种时态归纳

中学英语的16个时态考点

中学英语语法知识体系考点

初中英语学习习惯图解

单词记忆方法

英语能力考点

英语的学习习惯

视频及音频讲解

初中英语语法大全:第一讲Be动词 初中英语语法大全:第二讲人称代词和物主代词 初中英语语法大全:第三讲there be用法 初中英语语法大全:第四讲名词 初中英语语法大全:第五讲现在进行时

初中英语语法大全:第六讲助动词have 初中英语语法大全:第七讲一般现在时 初中英语语法大全:第八讲基数词与序数词 初中英语语法大全:第九讲英语词类 初中英语语法大全:第十讲各种疑问句及其回答 初中英语语法大全:第十一讲英语句子的种类 初中英语语法大全:第十二讲形容词在句子中的作用

初中英语语法大全:第十三讲冠词 初中英语语法大全:第十四讲反身代词 初中英语语法大全:第十五讲动词的种类 初中英语语法大全:第十六讲及物动词与不及物动词 初中英语语法大全:第十七讲英语句子的成分 初中英语语法大全:第十八讲句子的结构 初中英语语法大全:第十九讲状语从句 初中英语语法大全:第二十讲疑问句 初中英语语法大全:第二十一讲一般过去时 初中英语语法大全:第二十二讲一般将来时 初中英语语法大全:第二十三讲过去进行时 初中英语语法大全:第二十四讲现在完成时 初中英语语法大全:第二十五讲动词不定式 初中英语语法大全:第二十六讲宾语从句

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初中英语语法大全 语法网络图

初中英语语法大全2

初中英语语法大全1

初中英语语法_句型复习 人教版初中英语语法大全

篇二:初中英语语法讲解大全

初中英语复习专辑(1)——名词

名词的数

1、可数名词与不可数名词

A、不可数名词,初中阶段常见的不可数名词有:water ; meat ; rice ; bread ; milk ; tea ; orange(桔汁) ; fruit ; air ; snow ; chalk; work ; paper(纸) ; time(时间); music ; weather ; grass ; news ; food ; fish(鱼肉); coke ; porridge ; cake(可数或不可数). 不可数名词应注意以下几点:

1)前无数、冠,后无复数;作主语为三单. 2)表量用约数some /any ; much ; a lot of 或用of短语

eg. There is ____ bread on the table.[C] A. aB. one C. a piece of D. many There is some_______ on the plate.[B] A. appleB. fish C. milks D. deer 2、可数名词的复数 A、不规则变化:

man—men ; woman—women ;child—children policeman—policemen Englishman—Englishmen Frenchman—Frenchmen

foot—feet ; tooth—teeth mouse(鼠)—mice B、规则变化

1)s; sh; ch; x 结尾加 es 读 [iz]2) ce; se; ze; (d)ge 结尾加 s

eg. box ks] blous [blauz 3)f (fe) 结尾则变f(fe)为v加es---读[vz]eg. kniv]

4) ―辅+y‖结尾变y为i加es 清就清[s]5)一般加s 浊就浊[z] eg. book pen babi但注意以下几点:

① potato—potatoes ; tomato—tomatoes ② 单复同形: fish ; sheep ; deer ; Chinese ; Japanese

③ 由man , woman应将两部分都变成复数 man doctor — men doctors ④ reef—reefs

⑤ “某国人”的复数:中日不变英法变,其余s加后面. eg. German—Germans

⑥ people , police 常用单数形式表示复数概念 The police are looking for the missing boy. 3、名词所有格:名词’s (意思是 ―??的‖) A.有生命的名词所有格,一般在后加“’s”但注意: 1)表两者共有则在后者加“’s”

Lucy and Lily’s father 露西和莉莉的父亲 Lucy’s and Lily’s fathers露西的父亲和莉莉的父亲.

2)以s结尾的词只加“ ’ ”

eg. 1) the boys’ books 2) James’ father 3)无生命的名词所有格用of来引导 eg. the leg 4)双重所有格:a friend of my father’s

a friend of mine ( √ ) a friend of my( × )

练 习

一、写出下列词的复数 .

1.book______ 2.bus ______ 3.orange _______ 4.baby______ 5.boy______ 6.my ________ 二、选择正确的答案 ( )1.—Are those ______?

--- A. sheep ; cows C. sheeps ; cow ( )2.Mum, Please give me ____.

A. two orange ( B. any

D. two pieces )4.___ room is on the 5th floor.

A. Lucy and LilyB. Lucy and Lily’s C. Lucy’s and Lily D. Lucy’s and Lily’s ( )5.Every morning Mr. Smith takes a ____

to his office.

A. 20 minutes’ walk B. 20 minute’s walk C. 20-minutes walk D. 20-minute walk

( )6.This is James Allan Green. We can him ____.

A. Mr. Green B. Mr. Allan C. Mr. James D. James Green ( )7.Jack and Tom are ____.

A. good friends C. a good friend ( )8.It’s only about to the nearest post office.

( B. two piece of breads (B. child C. children’s D. children did the headmaster say about

A. two months holiday B. two months’ holiday C. two-month holiday D. two month’s holidays ( )12.I won’t go there with you, for I have a lot of ____ to do.

A. works B. job C. work D. working ( )13.Li Lei is a friend of ___.

A. I sister B. my sister’s C. me sisterD. my sister of ( )14.Have you read ____?

A. today’s B. today paper C. the today’s paperD. today’s paper

( )15.How many ___ are there in the room? A. boxesB. boxC. boxsD. boxxes ( )16.Many ____ have been built in our city since 1987.

A. factorysB. factories C. factoryesD. factorys

( )17.There are lots of ___ in the basket on the table .

A. tomatos B. tomato C. tomatoes D. tomatoss ( )18.The cat caught two ___ last night.

B. miceC. mouseD. mices ( )19.Jack went to have two ___ pulled out B. toothC. teeth D. toothes ( B. woman teachersD. woman’s teacher ( )21.The three ___ will be put into prison. A. thiefs B. thiefC. thieves D. thiefs’

练习答案: 一、

1. books2. buses3. oranges 4. babies5. boys 6. our 7. their 8. knives 9. watches 10. sheep 11. teeth 12. leaves 13. Germans14. Chinese 二、

1——5 ABCBD 6—10 AACCD 11—15 CCBDA16—21 BCBCAC

初中英语复习专辑(2)——冠词

1、不定冠词a, an

a用在辅音音素开头的词前 eg. a booka seful book a ― [ [an用于元音开头的词前. eg. an apple an hour an ―F‖[au] [ef] 2、定冠词the 1)特指某人/某物

The book on the desk is mine. 2)世上独一无二的事物前

the sun , the moon, the earth, the sky 3)形、副最高级及序数词前 The third boy is the tallest of all.

(但当这些词前已有其他限定词,如物主代词、所有格、指示代词时,则不能再用the)

A. aB. an C. theD. /

( )9.Meimei is ___ best student in her class. A. aB. anC. / D. the ( )10.Tom is ___ kind boy. All ___ students love him.

A. a ; / B. a ; theC. an ; /D. an ; the

( )11.Is ___ book on the desk mine? Yes.

her. A. the B. a C. an D. /

4)the + 姓的复数表示 “某家人”或“某夫( )12.Even while he was in ___ hospital, he

went on writing songs. 妇”。 the Greens 格林一家/ 格林夫妇

A. a B. anC. the D. / 3、不用冠词的几种情况:

( )13.Don’t read _____. 1)在星期、月份、季节前不用冠词

A. in bed B. in the bed C. on bed D. on the bed 2)学科名词前

3)球类运动及早、中、晚三餐名词前(但:( )14.Smith is ____ honest man. ①当三餐名词前有修饰词时,则要加适当的A. a B. theC. an D. /

( )15.China has ___ population of 冠词. ②表乐曲演奏的名词前应加the)

1) He went to school after he had a quick 1,200,000,000. breakfast. A. /B. an C. theD. a 2) play the violin / piano ( )16.What’s ____ for ―椅.子‖?

A. English B. an English

练 习 C. the English D. any English

( )1.There is ____ ―s‖ in ____ word ―bus‖. ( )17.Mary is ___ cleverer of the two girls. A. a ; a B. an ; the C. a ; the D. an ; a A. the B. a C. an D. much ( )2.Maths is ___ useful subject. You can’t ( drop it , I think. A. The ; aB. The ; the A. an B. a C. the D. / ( )19. ___ earth is one of ____ planets. ( )3.____ bad weather it is! A. HowB. What a

( )4.—--It’s _____ orange. A. an; anB. an ; theC. an ; / ( )5.Mr. Li is ____ old worker. A. anB. a C. some ( )6.Look at ____ picture! house in it. A. a ; a B. the ; the ( )7.One morning he found There was ___ ―s‖ on the handbag. A. a ; an ; the C. a ; a ; a (He is my first English teac

A. a ; the B. the ; the C. the ; aD. a ; a ( )23.There is_______ orange tree behind_____ house.

A. an ; theB. a ; aC. the ; the ( )24.—How long did you stay there ?

--About half ___ hour.

A. /B. one C. a D. an

练习题答案:

1——5 DBDCA—11—15 ADACD21—24 BDAD

物主代词。

(my—mine); 二留(his—his its—its) yours ; our—ours ; her—hers ;

(我的)book. This book is (我的).[ my ; mine] 3)反身代词:某某自己;亲自

反身代词的常见搭配:

1.enjoy oneself 玩得高兴;过得愉快

2.hurt oneself 伤着自己

3.teach oneself = learn… by oneself 自学

4.(all) by oneself (完全)独立地

5.help oneself to请自便;随便吃?

6.look after oneself 自理;照顾自己

7.leave one by oneself 把?单独留下

8.lose oneself in 陶醉于?;沉浸于?

(三)不定代词

1)some与any

一般情况下,some用于肯定句,any用

初中英语专辑(3)——代词

于否定句、疑问句(但表邀请、建议的问句

(一)指示代词:this , that , these , those. this , 中可用some—此类句型常以could , would开that一般与可数名词的单数连用,而不与不头)

可数名词连用(但that可单独指代不可数名 2) many + 可数 = a lot of : 许多 词)。 much + 不可数 that apple ( √ ) that meat ( × ) (但a lot of不能用于否定句) The weather in Sichuan is not so hot as ______ 3) few , a few ; little , a little in Guangzhou. [that] ①.The story is easy to read. There are

____new words in it. [few] (二)人称代词、物主代词和反身代词

1)人称代词:主格、宾格(作主语为主格, ②.Hurry up! There is_____ time left. [little] 作宾语为宾格; 介+宾格) 4) everyone / anyone eg.1)2)You thank . 2)物主代词:形容词性物主代词和名词性( )____ of us wants to read the book. [B]

A. EveryoneB. Every one C. Nobody D. No one

练 习

( )1.____office is much smaller than ____. A. Ours ; yours B. Our ; yoursC. Theirs ; our ( )2. ―Help___ to some meat.‖my uncle said to me .

A. themselves B. yourself C. yourselves ( )3. There are twenty teachers in our school. Eight of them are men teachers and ____ are women teachers.

A. othersB. the others C. another ( )4.There isn’t ____ paper in the box. Will you go and get ____ for me ?

A. any ; some B. any ; any C. some ; any ( )5.There are many trees on ___ sides of the street.

A. both B. all C. each

( )6.___ of them has a dictionary and ____ one of them can look up words in it.

A. Each ; every B. Every; each C. Every; every ( )7. ―When shall we meet, this afternoon or tonight?‖

―I don’t mind. ____ time is OK. A. EitherB. Every( )8.Would you like ___ cup of tea?

A. other B. the other to see see ____ ___ at ②.May I have ___________ apple ?

③.These cups are clean. ________ are dirty. ④.I have two pens. One is red , ________ is blue.[ other ; another ; others ; the others]

one another (

三者以上的)相互

each other (两者的)相互

We should learn from each other(说明we指两个人)

They help one another (说明they指三个人以上)

He has ___ time to have a rest.

A. little B. a little C. few ( )15.I have three skirts. One is red. ___ two are black.

A. another B. the other ( )16.Jack has ___ friends here. So he often feels lonely.

A. a littleB. a few ( A. weB. our ( A. any

( )19.Sorry, your question. I C. few

( )20.——Thanks .

B. yourself C. yourselves

数词分为基数词和序数词。用于表示事物数目的词称为基数词,表示事物顺序的词称为序数词。

1.基数词(1000以内的基数词的读法) 365—three hundred and sixty-five 505—five hundred and five 2.基数词变序数词的方法:

基变序,有规律;词尾要加th。一二三,特殊记;词尾分别tdd。八去t ,九去e ;ve则以f替。ty 则变作 ti ; 后面还有一个e。要是遇到几十几;只将个位变成序。 eg. one—first two—second three—third eight—eighth nine—ninth twelve—twelfth twenty—twentiethtwenty-one –-twenty-first 3.数词的应用: A、时刻表达法:

a. 整点:基数词 + o’clock

eg. It’s eight o’clock now. b. 几点几分:

①. neither ②.both , all 的词也为复数;neither , none但none of + 复名,neither of + ( A. NoneB. Neither C. Both ( river.A. both B. anyC. either

7) each: (二者以上的)every: (三者以上的)①.②.1 three twenty-five

30)用past :分钟past 小时twenty-five (minutes) past three >30分钟)用to:(60-分钟数) to (小时数+1) eg. 3:35 twenty-five (minutes) to four 3) 30分钟 = half 15分钟 = a quarter eg. 3:30 three thirty = half past three

3:15 three fifteen = a quarter past three. 3:45 three forty-five = a quarter to four B、日期表达法:月日,年(或日月年) 1949年10月1日 :

October1st , nineteen forty-nine

=2000年:the year two thousand

=twenty hundred

2001年:twenty o one

3月1日: March the first = C、表编号:

第207房间:Room 207

第五课: Lesson 5 = the fifth lesson

D、序数词与不定冠词(a; an)连用表“又一;再一”

eg. You’ve done it three times. Why not try a fourth time?

E、分数的表达:分子(基数)、分母(序数) eg. one third 三分之一 two thirds 三分之二 注意:1.分子超过1时,分母加s

2.含分数的短语作主语由分数后的词

决定谓语

eg.1)One third of the students girls.2)One third of the milk 3.分数的特殊形式

1)one third = a third 2)one fourth = a quarter

three fourths = three quarters 3)one second = a half

F、一些数词的复数 + of表约数: hundreds of ; thousands of ; millions of

A. Two-thirdB. Second-third C. Two-thirdsD. Second-thirds

( )1.If you go out at night, you’ll be able to ( )14.We have learned about ____ these days. see ____ starts. A. several hundreds English words A. thousands ofB. thousand of B. hundreds of English words C. nine thousands of D. thousands C. hundred of English words ( )2.Monday is ___ day of the week. D. several hundred English word

A. firstB. the first ( )15.A UN report says that the word C. the second D. second population will pass six billion by the end of ( )3.You’ve done it twice. Why not try ____ ____ century. time? A. twentiethB. twenty A. third B. the third C. a third D. once C. the twentiethD. the twentyth ( )4.Which is the____ month? It’s September.

五、介词

A. nine B. ninethC. ninth D. ninety ( )5.December is ___ of the year. 1.in; on; at用在时间词前,表“在” A. the twelfth months B. the twelfth month 1)at + 具体时刻 C. the twelveth months D. twelve months 2)on + 具体某天(具体某天的上、下午等;

( )6.There are ___ floors in the building and he lives on the ____ floor. 3)in + A. eighteen, fifteen B. eighteenth, fifteenth 但注意:at night= in the night

C. eighteen, fiveteen D. eighteen, fifteenth at this / that time

at Christmas ( )7.I was born ___, 1982. A. on June 2rd B. in June 2nd 3. ___ a rainy evening 4. ___3:50 C. on June two D. on June 2 6.___ the morning of April 10 ( )8.It’s ____ from our home to the zoo. 8.___ nightA. two and a half hours’ walk 另外注意:在时间词(morning , B. a half and two hours walk evening ; Sunday…)前有C. two hours and a half hour’s walk 时,不再用介词D. two and a half hour’s walk 介词。 ( )9.What time is it now? It’s ___ to six. eg. I this A. quarter B. a quarter C. quarto C. a quarto evening. ( )10.Will you be back in ____ ? 2. in , on , at atin一般指大地方或某A. one or two minutes B. one minute or two

on“在某个物体的表C. two minutes or one D. two or one minute

面”( )11.Mary’s uncle went to France ____.

A. in his thirtiesB. on his thirties

arrived ___a small village C. at his thirtiesD. about his thirties

(来自:WWw.hn1c.com 唯 才教 育 网:初中英语语法视频讲解)

( )12.The headmaster wrote a ___ report.

3)There is a big hole ____ the wall. 4)The teacher put up a picture ____ ( the wall.

3.in , on , to表方位 soft and sweet.

练 习

关于

eg.1)Taiwan is in the southeast of China. 在?前面/方(范围外) 2)A driver drives _________ of the bus. 4. 类似区别:at the back of与behind

13.with和in: 表示“用“ with: 指“用工具、手、口等” in:1) Please write the letter ____ a pen.

2) Please speak ____ a loud voice. 14. on a farm ; in a factory ; the girl in the hat ; 时间点:可与将来时连用。 leave for: 动身前往某地 _______ three o’clock.. That is, 15.一些固定搭配:

(1)介词与动词的搭配

listen to , laugh at, get to, look for; wait for, hear from, turn on, turn off, 外加在树上的事物)

worry about, think of, look after,

树上自身具有的花、果、叶等spend…on…, 等。

镶嵌在墙内部的事物(2)介词与名词的搭配

墙表面的事物) on time, in time, by bus, on foot, with pleasure, on one’s way to, in trouble, at breakfast, at the end of, in the end等。

(3)介词与形容词的搭配 8.by bike / bus / car / ship (单数且无冠词)

be late for, be afraid of, be good at, 但当这些交通工具名词前有其它修饰词时,

be interested in, be angry with, 则应使用相应的介词。

be full of, be sorry for等。 eg. by bike = on a(the; his) bike

by car = in a(the ; her) car

六、连词: 从属连词和并列连词

on: 在?(表面)上——接触

(一)从属连词:用于连接各种从句的连词 over: 在?的正上方

(二)并列连词:above: 在?的斜上方 未接触

并列连词用来连接具有并列关系的词, 1) The moon rose ______ the hill.

短语或句子。常见的并列连词有: 2) There is a bridge _____ the river.

1.表并列关系的and, both…and, not 3) There is a book ______ the desk.

only…but also, neither…nor等。 在(两者)之间

2. 表选择关系的or, either…or等。among :在(三者以上)之间

3. 表转折关系的but, while(然而)等。

1)A big crowd of people were waiting for Li

4.表因果关系的for, so等。

Lida on the beach. ________ them were hisin(范围内);on(范围外且接壤);to(但不接壤)。可表示为下图的位置关系

5.and: “和”在肯定句中表并列or: “和”在否定句中表并列 另外:1)or “或者”用于选择疑问句 2)or “否则”

eg. ①.Which do you like better, tea or milk? ②.Hurry up, or you’ll be late for school. 6.but “但是”表转折

eg. I listened, but I heard nothing.

注意:1)though(虽然), but(但是)不能连用 2)not … but 不是?而是 eg. This book isn’t mine but yours.

既?又(连接主语为复数) neither…nor: 既不?也不连接两主 7. either…or: 或者?或者 语后者决 not only … but also: 定单、复 eg.1)Both he and I are students. 2)Neither he nor I am a student.

练 习

( )1.___ the afternoon of May, we visited the old man. A. OnB. At C. In ( )2.Many people work ___ the day and sleep ___ night. A. on ; at B. in ; in C. in ; at ( )3.He speaks Japanese best ____ the boy students.A. between B. with C. among ( )4.A wolf ___ a sheep skin is our dangerous enemy. A. with B. in C. on ( )5.Joan hopes to come back ___ three days. A. afterB. forC. in

( )6.They sent the letter to me ___ mistake. A. by B. forC. with

( )7.He left home ___ a cold winter evening. A. atB. onC. in

( )8.Shanghai is ____ the east of China. A. inB. on C. to

( )9.____ my father’s help, I have finished my composition.

A. UnderB. On C. with

( )10.He’s very strict ____ and very strict ___ his work.

A. with ; in B. in ; with( )11.I really can’t agree ____ you.

A. to B. on C. with

( )12.The shop won’t open ___ nine in the morning.

A. until B. atC. during ( )13.How about ___ the flowers now? A. watering B. are watering C. watered ( )14.She spent all his money ___ books. A. in B. with C. on ( )15.They are talking ___ low voices. A. withB. in C. on ( )16.It’s very kind ___ you to help us. A. forB. toC. of

( )17.What will you have ___ breakfast this morning?

A. with B. forC. by ( )18.A plane is flying ____ the city. A. onB. overC. above

( )19.You are free to speak ___ the meeting. A. at B. in C. on

( )20.Mr. Green will stay in China___ Friday. A. to B. on C. till

( )21.It’s wrong to play tricks ___ other people.

A. on B. of( ___ red. A. for B. as( to use our spare time.

A. for ( of bicycle.

A. in C. on

( A. to C. at (

B. withC. without child was afraid ___ the strange A. atB. forC. of )28.He was very angry ___ her for being late. A. for B. with C. at ( )29.What do you think ___ the play? A. about B. likeC. of ( )30.I think it’s the right way to work out the ( problem, but I am not sure _____ it. A. do B. forC. of B. in ; inC. on ; in (A. under ; for B. in ; for( B. on C. in ____ my own eyes. )49.___ my surprise, he lost the game. A. byB. for A. WithB. To C. On (( )50.The blind man knows the money ___ A. excepttouching and feeling it.

( )34.There is a the two A. with B. byC. through towns A. in( )51. We traveled overnight to Paris and

( )35.Li Lei asleep ___ the arrived _______ 5 o’clock ______ the morning. lesson.C. during A. on; in B. at; in C. at; on D. in; on

( ( )52. Where’s Lily? We are all here _______ A. for B. in C. after her.

( A. beside B. about C. except D. with ( )53. She sent her friend a postcard _______ a B. from C. for birthday present.

you going to the zoo ___ bus or A. onB. as C. for D. of ( )54. Jack has studied Chinese in this school A. on ; by B. by ; in C. on ; in _______ the year of 2000.

( )39.He woke up several times ___ the night A. since B. in C. onD. by A. inB. at C. on ( )55. ---What is a writing brush, do you ( )40.No one can stop her ___ going away. know? A. ofB. from C. out of ---It’s _______ writing and drawing. ( )41.What do you mean ___ ―bao zhi‖? A. with B. to C. forD. by A. onB. with C. by ( )56. English is widely used ______ travellers ( )42.You’ll get a nice present ____ your and business people all over the world. parents____ your birthday. A. toB. for C. asD. by A. from ; onB. for ; at C. frm ; in ( )57. ______ the help of my teacher, I caught ( )43.Light comes in ____ the window. up with the other students.

A. from B. across C. through A. Under B. In C. WithD. On ( )44.There are many apples ___ the tree. A ( )58. Hong Kong is ______ the south of bird ___ the tree is picking an apple. China, and Macao is ______ the west of Hong A. in ; on B. on ; in C. in ; at Kong.

( )45. ―Who are you going to play ____?‖ A. in; to B. to; to C. to; in D. in; in ―Grade Two.‖ ( )59. ---You’d better not go out now. It’s A. about B. by C. against raining.

( )46. Don’t go ___ the street. The bus is ---It doesn’t matter. My new coat can keep coming. ______ rain. A. cross B. across C. past A. in B. of C. withD. off

篇三:edu_ecologychuanke1477648276

江西省南昌市2015-2016学年度第一学期期末试卷

(江西师大附中使用)高三理科数学分析

试卷紧扣教材和考试说明,从考生熟悉的基础知识入手,多角度、多层次地考查了学生的数学理性思维能力及对数学本质的理解能力,立足基础,先易后难,难易适中,强调应用,不偏不怪,达到了“考基础、考能力、考素质”的目标。试卷所涉及的知识内容都在考试大纲的范围内,几乎覆盖了高中所学知识的全部重要内容,体现了“重点知识重点考查”的原则。 1.回归教材,注重基础

试卷遵循了考查基础知识为主体的原则,尤其是考试说明中的大部分知识点均有涉及,其中应用题与抗战胜利70周年为背景,把爱国主义教育渗透到试题当中,使学生感受到了数学的育才价值,所有这些题目的设计都回归教材和中学教学实际,操作性强。 2.适当设置题目难度与区分度

选择题第12题和填空题第16题以及解答题的第21题,都是综合性问题,难度较大,学生不仅要有较强的分析问题和解决问题的能力,以及扎实深厚的数学基本功,而且还要掌握必须的数学思想与方法,否则在有限的时间内,很难完成。 3.布局合理,考查全面,着重数学方法和数学思想的考察

在选择题,填空题,解答题和三选一问题中,试卷均对高中数学中的重点内容进行了反复考查。包括函数,三角函数,数列、立体几何、概率统计、解析几何、导数等几大版块问题。这些问题都是以知识为载体,立意于能力,让数学思想方法和数学思维方式贯穿于整个试题的解答过程之中。

二、亮点试题分析

1.【试卷原题】11.已知A,B,C是单位圆上互不相同的三点,且满足AB?AC,则ABAC?的最小值为( )

?

?

??

1

41B.?

23C.?

4D.?1

A.?

【考查方向】本题主要考查了平面向量的线性运算及向量的数量积等知识,是向量与三角的典型综合题。解法较多,属于较难题,得分率较低。

???

【易错点】1.不能正确用OA,OB,OC表示其它向量。

????

2.找不出OB与OA的夹角和OB与OC的夹角的倍数关系。

???

【解题思路】1.把向量用OA,OB,OC表示出来。

2.把求最值问题转化为三角函数的最值求解。

??2??2

【解析】设单位圆的圆心为O,由AB?AC得,(OB?OA)?(OC?OA),因为

??????

,所以有,OB?OA?OC?OA则OA?OB?OC?1??????

AB?AC?(OB?OA)?(OC?OA)

???2????

?OB?OC?OB?OA?OA?OC?OA

?????OB?OC?2OB?OA?1

????

设OB与OA的夹角为?,则OB与OC的夹角为2?

??11

所以,AB?AC?cos2??2cos??1?2(cos??)2?

22

??1

即,AB?AC的最小值为?,故选B。

2

?

?

【举一反三】

【相似较难试题】【2015高考天津,理14】在等腰梯形ABCD中,已知

AB//DC,AB?2,BC?1,?ABC?60? ,动点E和F分别在线段BC和DC上,且,????????????1????????????BE??BC,DF?DC,则AE?AF的最小值为.

9?

【试题分析】本题主要考查向量的几何运算、向量的数量积与基本不等式.运用向量的几何

????????????????运算求AE,AF,体现了数形结合的基本思想,再运用向量数量积的定义计算AE?AF,体

现了数学定义的运用,再利用基本不等式求最小值,体现了数学知识的综合应用能力.是思维能力与计算能力的综合体现. 【答案】

????1????????1????

【解析】因为DF?DC,DC?AB,

9?2

????????????1????????1?9?????1?9?????CF?DF?DC?DC?DC?DC?AB,

9?9?18?

29 18

????????????????????AE?AB?BE?AB??BC,????????????????????????1?9?????1?9?????????AF?AB?BC?CF?AB?BC?AB?AB?BC,

18?18?

?????????????????1?9??????????1?9?????2????2??????1?9?????AE?AF?AB??BC??AB?BC??AB??BC??1????AB?BC

18?18?18?????

??

211717291?9?19?9?

?????? ?4????2?1?

cos120??

9?218181818?18

?????212???29

当且仅当. ??即??时AE?AF的最小值为

9?2318

2.【试卷原题】20. (本小题满分12分)已知抛物线C的焦点F?1,0?,其准线与x轴的

?

交点为K,过点K的直线l与C交于A,B两点,点A关于x轴的对称点为D. (Ⅰ)证明:点F在直线BD上; (Ⅱ)设FA?FB?

?

?

8

,求?BDK内切圆M的方程. 9

【考查方向】本题主要考查抛物线的标准方程和性质,直线与抛物线的位置关系,圆的标准方程,韦达定理,点到直线距离公式等知识,考查了解析几何设而不求和化归与转化的数学思想方法,是直线与圆锥曲线的综合问题,属于较难题。

【易错点】1.设直线l的方程为y?m(x?1),致使解法不严密。

2.不能正确运用韦达定理,设而不求,使得运算繁琐,最后得不到正确答案。 【解题思路】1.设出点的坐标,列出方程。 2.利用韦达定理,设而不求,简化运算过程。 3.根据圆的性质,巧用点到直线的距离公式求解。

【解析】(Ⅰ)由题可知K??1,0?,抛物线的方程为y2?4x

则可设直线l的方程为x?my?1,A?x1,y1?,B?x2,y2?,D?x1,?y1?, 故?

?x?my?1?y1?y2?4m2

整理得,故 y?4my?4?0?2

?y?4x?y1y2?4

2

?y2?y1y24?

则直线BD的方程为y?y2?x??x?x2?即y?y2???

x2?x1y2?y1?4?

yy

令y?0,得x?12?1,所以F?1,0?在直线BD上.

4

?y1?y2?4m2

(Ⅱ)由(Ⅰ)可知?,所以x1?x2??my1?1???my2?1??4m?2,

?y1y2?4

x1x2??my1?1??my1?1??1又FA??x1?1,y1?,FB??x2?1,y2?

故FA?FB??x1?1??x2?1??y1y2?x1x2??x1?x2??5?8?4m,

2

2

则8?4m?

??

??

84

,?m??,故直线l的方程为3x?4y?3?0或3x?4y?3?0 93

故直线

BD的方程3x?

3?0或3x?3?0,又KF为?BKD的平分线,

3t?13t?1

,故可设圆心M?t,0???1?t?1?,M?t,0?到直线l及BD的距离分别为54y2?y1?

?-------------10分 由

3t?15

?

3t?143t?121

? 得t?或t?9(舍去).故圆M的半径为r?

953

2

1?4?

所以圆M的方程为?x???y2?

9?9?

【举一反三】

【相似较难试题】【2014高考全国,22】 已知抛物线C:y2=2px(p>0)的焦点为F,直线5

y=4与y轴的交点为P,与C的交点为Q,且|QF|=4(1)求C的方程;

(2)过F的直线l与C相交于A,B两点,若AB的垂直平分线l′与C相交于M,N两点,且A,M,B,N四点在同一圆上,求l的方程.

【试题分析】本题主要考查求抛物线的标准方程,直线和圆锥曲线的位置关系的应用,韦达定理,弦长公式的应用,解法及所涉及的知识和上题基本相同. 【答案】(1)y2=4x.

(2)x-y-1=0或x+y-1=0. 【解析】(1)设Q(x0,4),代入

y2=2px,得

x0=,

p

8

8pp8

所以|PQ|,|QF|=x0=+.

p22p

p858

由题设得+=p=-2(舍去)或p=2,

2p4p所以C的方程为y2=4x.

(2)依题意知l与坐标轴不垂直,故可设l的方程为x=my+1(m≠0). 代入y2=4x,得y2-4my-4=0. 设A(x1,y1),B(x2,y2), 则y1+y2=4m,y1y2=-4.

故线段的AB的中点为D(2m2+1,2m), |AB|m2+1|y1-y2|=4(m2+1).

1

又直线l ′的斜率为-m,

所以l ′的方程为x+2m2+3.

m将上式代入y2=4x,

4

并整理得y2+-4(2m2+3)=0.

m设M(x3,y3),N(x4,y4),

则y3+y4y3y4=-4(2m2+3).

m

4

?22?

2故线段MN的中点为E?22m+3,-,

m??m

|MN|=

4(m2+12m2+1

1+2|y3-y4|=.

mm2

1

由于线段MN垂直平分线段AB,

1

故A,M,B,N四点在同一圆上等价于|AE|=|BE|=,

211

22从而+|DE|=2,即 444(m2+1)2+

??22?2?2

?2m+?+?22?=

m???m?

4(m2+1)2(2m2+1)

m4

化简得m2-1=0,解得m=1或m=-1, 故所求直线l的方程为x-y-1=0或x+y-1=0.

三、考卷比较

本试卷新课标全国卷Ⅰ相比较,基本相似,具体表现在以下方面: 1. 对学生的考查要求上完全一致。

即在考查基础知识的同时,注重考查能力的原则,确立以能力立意命题的指导思想,将知识、能力和素质融为一体,全面检测考生的数学素养,既考查了考生对中学数学的基础知识、基本技能的掌握程度,又考查了对数学思想方法和数学本质的理解水平,符合考试大纲所提倡的“高考应有较高的信度、效度、必要的区分度和适当的难度”的原则. 2. 试题结构形式大体相同,即选择题12个,每题5分,填空题4 个,每题5分,解答题8个(必做题5个),其中第22,23,24题是三选一题。题型分值完全一样。选择题、填空题考查了复数、三角函数、简易逻辑、概率、解析几何、向量、框图、二项式定理、线性规划等知识点,大部分属于常规题型,是学生在平时训练中常见的类型.解答题中仍涵盖了数列,三角函数,立体何,解析几何,导数等重点内容。

3. 在考查范围上略有不同,如本试卷第3题,是一个积分题,尽管简单,但全国卷已经不考查了。