初中语法动词ppt

篇一:初中英语语法 动词

初中英语语法-动词(I)及练习

重点知识归纳及讲解

一、概述

动词是表示动作或状态的词。句子中的谓语成分是由动词充当的,谓语通常是句中不可缺少的成分,因此动词是英语词类中最重要的一种。动词可以通过本身的变化来表示动作发生的时间以及说话人的语气、态度等。

1.动词的种类

动词按其词义和在句中的作用可以分为:行为动词(或称实义动词)、连系动词、助动词和情态动词。详见下表:

动词分类 特征 例词 例句

He often helps me. 行为 动 词 表示动作或状态。有完整的词义。help帮助(vt.)

vt./vi. I can see a bird in the 能独立作谓语。按其带不带宾语、see看见(vt.)

tree. 分为及物动词(带宾语)和不及物go去(vi.) fly飞(vi.)

Planes can fly. 动词(不带宾语)

He is an English 连系 动 词 本身有词义,但不能独立作谓语,be是 look看起来

link v. 必须和表语一起构成谓语(名词性seem似乎 get变得 teacher.

合成谓语) become变成,成为 They look the same.

助 动 词 本身无词义,不能独立作谓语,只be; have; do; will; shall He doesn't speak v. aux. English. 能和实义动词一起构成谓语。可用

We are playing 来表示否定,疑问、时态、语态、

basketball 语气等。

Do you have a

brother?

can; many; must; need; She can speak a little 情 态 动本身有一定词义,但不完整。不能

English. 词 独立作谓语,只能和行为动词一起dare; will; would; shall;

mod v. should May I come in? 构成谓语,表示说话人的态度

We must go now.

注意:

1)行为动词又可分为及物动词(vt.)和不及物动词(vi.)两种。及物动词作谓语,后面必须跟宾语意思才完整。不及物动词作谓语,后面不能跟宾语,只有加上介词后才可接宾语。

2)英语中有些动词常常是既作及物动词又作不及物动词;既作连系动词工作及物动词。 例如: He speaks English very well. (vt.) 他英语讲得好。He spoke at the meeting. (vi.) 另外,动词按其在句中能否作谓语,又可分为谓语动词(finite verb)和非谓语动词(non-finite verb)两大类。

说明: 谓语动词又称限定动词非谓语动词又称非限定动词。非谓语动词初中阶段主要学习动词不定式的用法。

2.动词的基本形式

英语动词有五种基本形式,即动词原形、过去式、过去分词、现在分词和第三人称单数形式。如:work—worked—worked—working—works。它们的构成及形式详见下表。

形式 构成 例词

动词原不带to的动词不定式形式(也就是词典中一般给予的形式) be, have, do, come

work→worked 过去式1.在动词原形后加-ed

carry→carried 与过去2.以辅音字母+y结尾的动词,先将y变为i再加-ed

分词 3.以重读闭音节一个辅音字母结尾的动词,先双写结尾的辅stop→stopped (规则音字母再加-ed

变化)

read→reading 现在分1.在动词原形后加-ing

write→writing 词 2.以不发音的e结尾的动词,去掉e再加-ing

3.以重读闭音节一个辅音字母结尾的动词,先双写结尾的辅swim→swimming

die→dying 音字母再加-ing

4.少数几个以ie结尾的动词要变ie为y,再加-ing

run→runs 第三人1.在动词原形后加-s

teach→teaches 称单数2.以ch, sh, s, o, x结尾的动词后加-es

wash→washes 形式 3.以辅音字母+y结尾的动词,先将y变为i,再加-es

go→goes 4.以元音字母+y结尾的动词后加-s

pass→passes

try→tries

stay→stays

说明:

1)词尾-ed在清辅音后读[t];在浊辅音和元音后读[d];在[t]和[d]后读[id]。

2)词尾-es或-s在[s ]、[z]、[t ]、[d ]后面读[iz];在清辅音后读[s];在浊辅音及元音后读

[z];在[t],[d]后读[ts]、[dz]。

3)不规则动词的过去式与过去分词则要根据不规则动词表逐渐记住。

二、动词的时态

在英语中,由于谓语动作发生的时间不同,或表达不同时间存在的状态,谓语动词都要发生相应的变化。这些动词的变化形式就叫做动词的时态。

初中阶段主要学习,掌握以下八种时态。

1.一般现在时

1)构成

动词一般现在时,除主语为单数第三人称以外,谓语动词一律用原形,若主语为第三人称单数,则谓语动词的词尾应发生变化(加-s或-es)。另外be和have有特殊的人称变化形式。 详见下表:

动词to be 动词to have

I am a student I have a pen.

You are a student You have a pen.

He (She) is a student. He (She) has a pen.

We (You, They) are students We (You, They) have pens.

2)用法

a.表示经常发生的动作、行为或存在的状态。

常用的时间状语有:often, usually, always, every day等。

I go to school every day except Sunday. 除了星期日,我每天上学。

There are fifty students in our class. 我们班上有五十个学生。

b.表示主语的身份或特征。

His father is a doctor. 他的父亲是医生。 Tom is tall. 汤姆个子高。

c.表示一种客观事实或普遍真理

The earth is round. 地球是圆的. The sun is bigger than the moon. 太阳比月亮大。

d.在条件状态从句和时间状语从句中,用一般现在时表示将来。

If you don't go soon, you'll be late. 如果你不快去的话,你就要迟到了。

I will wait for you until you come back. 我将一直等到你回来。

2.一般过去时

1)构成

一般过去时其谓语动词使用动词过去式形式。

肯定式 否定式 疑问式

I (You, He, She, We, Did you (I, he, she, we, they) 一般动词 I (You, He, She, We, They)

worked there. They) did not work work there?

there.

I (He, She, It) was Was I (he, she, it) be动词 I (He, She, It) was there.

We ( You, They) were there not there. there?

We (You, They) Were you (we, they) there?

were not there.

I (You, He, She, We, They) had I (You, He, She, We, Had I (you, he, she, we, they) any hav

初中语法动词ppt

e动词

books. They) had not/ didn't books?或Did I (you, he ?)have

have any books any books?

2)用法

a.表示在过去某一时间内发生的动作或存在的状态,常与表示过去的时间状语连用,如:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, just now, upon a time, in 1989, in the old days, when I was at middle school等。

He left for Beijing yesterday morning. 他昨天上午到北京去了。

She wasn't at home last night. 她昨晚上在家。

Did you finish your work at four yesterday afternoon? 你昨天下午四点完成工作了吗? b.表示过去经常或反复发生的动作。

I got up very early at that time. 我那时总是起得很早。

Mary always got up too late and never had enough time for breakfast when she was at middle school. 玛丽上中学时总是起得很晚,从来都没有足够时间吃早饭。

3.一般将来时

1)构成

动词一般将来时由助动词shall或will加动词原形构成。shall用于第一人称作主语,will用于第二、三人称作主语。除英国以外的说英语的国家,在陈述句中,即使在第一人称作主语时一般也使用助动词will,在英国现在也有这种趋势。在口语中,shall,will常缩写成I?ll You'll, We'll等。在否定句中,will not缩写成won't shall not缩写成shan't。

肯定式 否定式 疑问式

I (We) shall / will go there I (We ) shall / will not go there Shall I (we) go there?

You (He, She, They) will go You (He, She, They) will not go Will you (he, she, they) go there there there?

2)用法

a.表示将要发生的动作行为或存在的状态。

常与表示将来的时间状语连用,如:tomorrow, next time, next year, in a few days等。 I'll go and see her next Friday. 我下周五去看她。

He won't go there tomorrow morning. 他明天上午不到那儿去。

Will you do it again? 你再做一遍好吗?

b.有时没有时间状语,根据上下文判断其谓语动作是将要发生的。

I don't know who will do it. 我不知道谁将做这件事。

Don't worry, he will be there on time. 别着急,他会准时在那儿。

c.表示将来经常发生的动作。

From now on I'll get up early every morning. 从今以后,我每天早晨早起。

注意:

1)表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态,除了用上述的一般将来时外,还可以用be going to 来表示。be going to这个结构表示:a.即将发生的动作;b.主语打算或准备要做的事;c.说话人根据已有的迹象判断即将发生的事。be going to 结构中的be随着句子中主语的人称而变化。

例如:

We are going to learn English. 我们将学习英语。

How are you going to spend your holidays? 你们打算怎样度过假期?

Look at these black clouds. I think it's going to rain. 看这些黑云,我想天要下雨了。

2)在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,一般将来时要用一般现在时代替。

例如: He will come to see you when he has time. 他有空时会来看你的。

They will ring you up as soon as they get back. 他们一回来就打电话给你。

4.现在进行时

1)构成

现在进行时由助动词be的人称形式加动词的现在分词构成。它的肯定式,否定式及疑问式的结构如下:

肯定式 否定式 疑问式

I am working now. I am not working now. Am I working now?

You are working now. You are not working now. Are you working now?

He (She) is working now. He (She) is not working now. Is (he, she) working now?

We (You, They) are working We (You, They) are not working Are you (we, they) working now. now. now?

2)用法

a.现在进行时表示说话时谓语的动作正在进行。

Who are you waiting for? 你在等谁?

He knows that we are helping him now. 他知道我们现在正在帮助他 。

b.在现阶段正在进行的动作,但不一定说话时动作正在进行。

The students are working on the farm there days. 这些天学生们正在农场劳动。

c.有些动词的进行时态还可用来表示将来时。这类动词有go, come, leave, arrive, move, die等。

He is coming soon. 他不久就要来了。

Mary is arriving here at 4 o/clock this afternoon. 玛丽今天下午四点到达这里。

注意:

1)表示状态或感觉的动词,如:know, love, like, want, hear, see, think等,一般没有进行时态,因为它们不能表示正在进行的动作。但是,如果词义发生变化,能表示一个正在进行的动作,也可使用进行时态。

例如: Stop, I am thinking. 停下来,我正在想问题呢。

2)无法延续动作的动词,如:jump, begin, start, stop等一般不宜用于进行时态。但是,若想表示动作反复或即将发生,也可使用进行时态。

例如: He is jumping up and down. 他一下一下地跳个不停。

5.现在完成时

1)构成

现在完成时由have的人称形式加动词的过去分词构成。它的肯定式、否定式及疑问式如下: 肯定式 否定式 疑问式

I (We, You, They ) have done it. I (We, You, They) have not done it. Have you (they, I , we) done it? He (She) has done it. He (She) has not done it. Has he (she) done it?

2)用法

a.表示过去某一时间发生的动作或存在的状态,对现在仍有影响。

She has been ill for three days. 她病了三天了。 He has already left. 他已经走了。 b.表示从过去某一时间开始一直持续到现在的动作或状态。

We've known each other since we were children. 我们从小就认识。

注意: 在用already, always, yet, just, ever, never等副词作状语时,或者由for, since引起的短语作状语或状语从句时,句子的谓语动词常用现在完成时。

区别:

1)have (has) been to 与have (has) gone to

have (has) been to +某地,表示到过某地,说明去过某地,说话时已经回来了。

have (has) gone to +某地,说明去某地了,说话时还没有回来。

例如:

篇二:初中语法动词全

Chapter 2

动词

1.动词的分类:实义动词 连系动词 情态动词 助动词

2.关于实义动词:①

后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的叫及物动词;本身意义完整,后面不需跟宾语的叫不及物动词。 ② 有些动词通常只作不及物动词。如:go,come,happen,lie,listen,rise,arrive,fall等 ③ 大多数动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。如:study, sing等 3.关于连系动词:

① 连系动词用来连接主语和表语,连系动词后面常为形容词。

② 常见的连系动词有:be、become、look、feel、sound、smell、taste、seem、turn、grow、get、 go、fall、sit、stand、lie 等 4.关于助动词

①常见的助动词有:用于进行时和被动语态的be (am, is, are ,was, were, been,

being ) ;用于完成时的have(has,had,having) ;用于将来时的shall (should) ;will (would)和用于一般时的do(does,did) .

②助动词必须同主语的人称和数一致,也就是说因主语人称、数的不同而采用不同的形式,其中有些助动词也可作情态动词。如:shall, will, should, would.

5.关于情态动词:①常见的情态动词有:can (could) ,may (might), must ,shall

(should), will (would), dare (dared) , need等,另外,have to、had better也当作情态动词使用。情态动词后面必须加动词的原形

②can表示体力、脑力方面的能力或客观的可能性

③ may表示允许、请求或可能性,用may提问时,肯定回答一般用Certainly或Yes,you may.;否定回答一般用can’t或mustn’t.

④ must表示“必须”、“一定”的意思。表示“必须”时否定形式是mustn’t;表示“一定”时,否定形式是“can’t”

[注意]用must(必须)进行提问时,肯定回答用must,否定回答用needn’t; 用must(一定)进行提问时,肯定回答仍用must,但是否定回答用can’t. 如:Must we clean the room before we leave? –Yes,you must.或No,you needn’t. Must she be in the room? –Yes,she must.或No,she can’t.

⑤ shall在问句中,可表示征求对方意见,与第一人称连用;在陈述句的第二、三人称的主语后或表示“命令”、“警告”、“允许”等

Shall we go to the zoo this weekend?(我们这个周末去动物园好吗?) He shall bring his own book next time.(他下次必须带自己的书来) ⑥will表示“意愿”、“决心”等意思,一般与第二人称连用 Will you please close the door for me?

⑦would表示过去的“意愿”、“决心”等,可以表示现在的情况,表达说话人向对方提出的要求,语气比“will”婉转、客气,还可以气表示过去经常发生的事情。 He would sit near the fire every time he returned home。

⑧need表示“需要”,用于疑问句或否定句。“need”作实义动词时,在肯定、否定、疑问句中都可以用

6.动词词形变化一览表

【语法过关】

用所给动词的正确形式填空:

1. Li Ping often __________ (read) English in the morning. 2. __________ he __________ (clean) the windows once a week. 3. The workers __________ (have) sports on the playground now.

4. How long __________ you __________ (stay) there the day before yesterday. 5. Who __________ (listen) to the music?

6. When I __________ (be) a middle school student, I often __________ (sing). 7. His parents __________(go) to the Great Wall tomorrow morning. 8. __________ they __________ (study) Japanese next term?

9. What time __________ you __________ (do) your homework everyday. 10. Look! The students __________ (clean) the classroom.

11. What _________ you _________ (do) yesterday?—He _________ (write) two letters. 12. There __________ (be) a football match on TV this evening. 13. My father __________ (leave) for Japan tomorrow morning. 14. Tom __________ (not listen) to the radio every morning. 15. __________ (be) there any hospitals here twenty years ago? 16. I __________ (come) to see you again before long.

17. __________ there __________ (be) an English evening next Saturday? 18. __________ your uncle __________ (have) a meeting last Friday? 19. What __________ the young Pioneers __________ (do) on the hill now? 20. They __________ (not go) fishing on Sunday.

21. How many classes __________ you __________ (have) every day. 选择题

1. The no. 12 bus __________ to the Town Hall and not to the station.

A. has comeB. has been going C. goes D. is going 2. Don’t use that pen. It __________ smoothly . A. didn’t write B. don’t writeC. doesn’t write D. isn’t write

3. If it __________, I won’t go for a walk.

A. rainsB. will rain C. rainedD. rain 4. The child is playing while his mother __________ dinner.

A. cooked B. cooks C. was cooking D. is cooking 5. He __________ in a cotton factory these day.

A. is working B. worksC. will be workingD. has been working 6. Don’t turn off the light I __________a report now.

A. have been readingB. read C. am reading D. have read 7. John __________ the first party in his life tomorrow night。

A. is given B. is giving C. has given D. has been giving 8. My uncle __________ to see me. He’ll be here soon.

A. comes B. is coming C. had come D. came 9. At this moment I __________ we have a good chance of victory.

A. feelB. am feeling C. felt D. am felt 10. My uncle never __________ a hat even in winter.

A. is wearing B. are being worn C. wore D. wears 11. By next December, I __________ fifty-five.

A. will have to be B. will have beenC. will be being D. shall be 12. Look out! That tree __________ fall down.

A. is going to B. will beC. shallD. would 13. We __________ for Shanghai tonight.

A. are starting B. startsC. startedD. have started

篇三:初中英语语法——动词、时态、语态等(详细)

1、动词的分类:

★重要注解:

(1) 关于实义动词:

① 英语的实义动词又可分为及物动词和不及物动词两大类:

后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的叫及物动词;本身意义完整,后面不需跟宾语的叫不及物动词。

② 有些动词通常只作不及物动词。如:go,come,happen,lie,listen,rise,arrive,hall等。 有些动词通常用作及物动词。如:say, raise, lay, find, buy等。

③ 大多数动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。如:study, sing等。

④ 有些动词作及物动词与作不及物动词时的意义有所不同。如:know, wash等。 ⑤ 有些动词常和介词 、副词或其它词类一起构成固定词组,形成短语动词。如:

listen,reply,wait,look. (2) 关于连系动词:

① 连系动词用来连接主语和表语,连系动词后面常为形容词。

② 常见的连系动词有:be、become、look、feel、sound、smell、taste、seem、turn、

grow、get、 go、fall、sit、stand、lie 等。

③ 有些连系动词来源于实义动词,意思也跟着变化:look(看→看起来)、feel(感觉、摸

→感到)、 smell(闻、嗅→闻起来)、taste(尝→尝起来)、turn(翻转、转动→变得)、grow(生长→变得)、get(得到、到达→变得)、go(去→变得),所不同的是,作为实义动词时,后面不能跟形容词。 [注释]

become、get、go、be、grow、turn的用法区别:become表示“变成”,比较正式,通常不用将来时表示动作已经完成。get也表示动作已经完成,但是更加口语化,通常表示

温度、时间、岁数等变化。go表示“变得”,常见于某些短语中,后面常有形容词bad、blind、hungry等。be表示“是、成为、当”,多用于将来时、祈使句或不定式中。grow表示“变得”,常指逐渐的变化,表示身高、岁数的增长。turn表示“变得”,指变为与原先不同的情况,通常指颜色等变化。如:I was caught in the rain and I became ill.(我淋雨感冒了)/ He has got rich.(他变富了)/ He will be a scientist in the future.(将来他将成为科学家)/ My little brother has grown much taller in the past year.(在过去的一年里我的弟弟长得高多了)/ The sandwich has gone bad.(那块三明治已经变坏)/ Her face (批评) her.(妈妈批评了他以后他的脸变红了) (3) 关于助动词:

①常见的助动词有:用于进行时和被动语态的be (am, is, are ,was, were, been, being ) ;用于完成时的have(has,had,having) ;用于将来时的shall (should) ; will (would)和用于一般时的do(does,did) .

②助动词必须同主语的人称和数一致,也就是说因主语人称、数的不同而采用不同的形式,其中有些助动词也可作情态动词。如:shall, will, should, would.(4) 关于情态动词:

①常见的情态动词有:can (could) ,may (might), must ,shall (should), will (would), dare (dared) , need等,另外,have to、had better也当作情态动词使用。情态动词后面必须加动词的原形。

②can表示体力、脑力方面的能力或客观的可能性。口语中, 在询问或说明一件事可不可以做时,常用“can”代替“may”。情态动词“can”的过去式是“could”,否定式是“cannot”通常缩写成“can’t”“,could”的否定式是“could not”,通常缩写成“couldn’t”。如:Can I help you?(要帮忙吗?)/ He can swim.(他会游泳)/ That can’t be Mr Li.(那不可能是李先生)

③ may表示允许、请求或可能性,用may提问时,肯定回答一般用Certainly或Yes,you may.;否定回答一般用can’t或mustn’t. 如:—Certainly.(可以问你一个问题吗?当然可以)/ You may go now.(现在你可以走了)/ It may be in your pocket.(它可能在你的衣袋里) ④ must表示“必须”、“一定”的意思。表示“必须”时否定形式是mustn’t;表示“一定”时,否定形式是“can’t” 如:We must be very careful when we cross the road.(我们过马路时一定要非常小心)/ It must be Jack.(那准是杰克)/ I haven’t seen Kate today. She can’t be here.(我今天没有看到过凯特,她不可能在这里)

[注意]用must(必须)进行提问时,肯定回答用must,否定回答用needn’t;用must(一定)进行提问时,肯定回答仍用must,但是否定回答用can’t.如:Must we clean the room before we leave? –或No,you (我们走之前必须要打扫房间吗?是的,必须打扫。/ 不,不需要。) / Must she be in the romm? –Yes,she must.或No,she (她一定在房间里吗?是的,一定。/ 不,不可能在。) ⑤ “have to”表示“不得不”、“必须”。We’ll have to leave now for it is very late at night.have to的疑问形式是:助动词+…+have to,否定形式是:助动词+not+have to或者用needn’t.如:stay until 8 o’clock?(你得呆到8点钟吗?)/ You do so.)(你不用这么做)

⑥ shall在问句中,可表示征求对方意见,与第一人称连用;在陈述句的第二、三人称的主语后或表示“命令”、“警告”、“允许”等。如:Shall we go to the zoo this weekend?(我们这个周末去动物园好吗?)/ He shall bring his own book next time.(他下次必须带自己的书来)

⑦ should可表示“劝告”、“建议”、“惊奇”等意思。We should speak to old people politely.(我们应该礼貌地对老人讲话) ⑧ will表示“意愿”、“决心”等意思,一般与第二人称连用。如:Will you please close the door for me?(请你替我把门关上好吗?).(我要教训你一顿) ⑨would表示过去的“意愿”、“决心”等。He would sit near the fire every time he returned

home.(每次他回到家中总要坐在火炉边)

would也可以表示现在的情况,表达说话人向对方提出的要求,语气比“will”婉转、客

气。在日常会话中,“我想要?”通常用“I would like to”或“I should(I’d) like to”来表示。如:?(你现在想要休息一下吗?)

would还可以表示过去经常发生的事情。如:about the boy who would save his people.(每一年父母们向孩子们讲述这个将会拯救他的人民的男孩的事)

⑩ need表示“需要”,用于疑问句或否定句。“need”作实义动词时,在肯定、否定、疑问句中都可以用。如:He needn’t do it in such a hurry.(他不需要如此匆忙地做这件事)/ He some help.(他需要一些帮助)/ He to bring his football socks then.(那么他就无须带上足球袜了)

⑾ dare是“敢”的意思,用法几乎与“need”完全相同,即在疑问句和否定句中,可以作情态动词,后面用不带“to”的动词不定式。在肯定句中和实义动词一样,后面的动词不定式要带“to”。How dare you say I am a fool?(你竟敢说我是个傻瓜?)/ He didn’t .(他不敢触碰那个红色的按钮)

⑿ ‘d better (do)(“最好是”)一般也当作情态动词使用,否定式是:’d better not (do). 如:Yousit here and say nothing.(你最好坐在这儿不讲话)/ Youspeak because he is sleeping.(你最好不要讲话因为他正在睡觉) 2、动词词形变化一览表: (1)规则动词变化表:

②s/es的读音规则:在清辅音后读[s];在浊辅音后和元音后读[z];在[ s ]、[ F]、[z]、[tF]、[dV]后读[iz]. ③ed的读音规则:在清辅音后读[t];在浊辅音后和元音后读[d];在[t]、[d]后读[id].

(2)

3、be(“是/存在”)动词的各种时态变化:

否定句在am /is /are /will /have /has /was /were /had /would 后面加not,而且not都可

以缩写为n’t (am后面not不可以缩写);

疑问句将am /is /are /will /have /has /was /were /had /would 提前到句首。

4、其它动词(主动语态)的时态变化一览表:

5、八种时态的具体用法:

(1) 一般现在时 表示现阶段经常或习惯发生的动作或存在的状态,或说明主语的特征。

① 一般现在时句子中常有的时间状语:often,usually,sometimes,always,every (day

等), once/twice,a (week等), on (Sunday等),never,in the (morning等)。如:(他们每年去一次故宫)/ They often 他们经常在晚上商谈生意) ② 表示客观真理、事实、人的技能或现在的状态时句子里一般不用时间状语。如:

The earth turns round the sun.(地球绕着太阳转)/ Light travels faster than sound.(光传播比声音快)

③ 表示十分确定会发生(如安排好的事情)或按照时间表进行的事情,用一般现在可

篇四:初中语法动词

动词(Verbs)

动词的种类按其作用可分为行为动词(实义动词)、连系动词、助动词和情态

动词

行为动词(实义动词) 行为动词意义完整,能独立用作谓语

e.g. The sun shone brightly this morning.

连系动词 连系动词本身有一定的意义,但不完整,不能单独作谓语,必须

和表语一起构成谓语。常见的连系动词有be,become,get,look,seem,

feel,smell,sound,keep,become,turn,fall等 e.g. She is a good swimmer.

助动词 助动词本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成

谓语,表示否定、疑问、时态、语态或其他语法形式。常见的助动词有be,

have(has),do(does),will(would),shall(should)

()

助动词的用法

助动词be的用法

be后面跟现在分词构成各种进行时态e.g. My mother is cooking in the

chicken.

be后面跟过去分词构成被动语态 e.g. This bridge was built twenty

years ago.

be后面跟动词不定式表示根据安排要发生的事情

e.g. We are to have an English evening next week.

助动词have的用法

have后面跟过去分词构成完成时态 e.g. I have been to the teachers’

office.

have后面跟动词不定式构成谓语,表示因客观环境而不得不做的事情

e.g. It’s raining hard. She has to stay at home.

助动词do的用法

用来构成疑问句和否定句e.g. I don’t think you are right.我认为你不对。

用来加强语气,起强调作用,一般解释为“一定要”,“真的” e.g. Do come

and see me.

用来代替前面刚提到的动词以避免重复 e.g. I work harder than he does.

助动词shall/should与will/would的用法

shall构成一般将来时,should构成过去将来时,用于第一人称,后接动词原

形。

e.g. We shall visit the Science Museum next month.\ He asked me if I

should take part in the sports meet.

will构成一般将来时,would构成过去将来时,用于第二、三人称,后接动

词原形

e.g. The weather report says that there will be heavy rain tomorrow

afternoon.

【注】现代英语有一个明显的发展趋势,就是第一人称用shall表示将来时间已

越来越少,大量采用will,它在陈述句中能用于所有人称,即使是第一人称疑问

句也用will。

e.g. We will set off soon. \ Will I be able to go out tomorrow.

情态动词 情态动词本身有词义,表示说话人对某种动作和状态的看法,但

不能独立作谓语,和动词原形一起构成谓语,情态动词没有人称和数的变化。

几个常用情态动词的用法

情态动词can(could)的用法

表示智力、体力方面的能力 e.g. He can speak both English and French.

在口语中,can常代替may,表示“许可”、“可以” e.g. Can I use your computer?

can有时意为可能,表示说话人的“怀疑”、“猜测”或“不肯定”,常用于否定句

或疑问句 e.g. Can the news be true?

could可代表can表示现在时间的动作,但语气较为婉转

e.g. Could you please ring up again at six?

【注】 ⒈be able to可以和can(could)表示同样意思 e.g. No one can do it.=No

one is able to do it.

⒉表示将来或其他时间的能力和做具体一件事的能力时要用be able

to,

e.g. Will you be able to come tonight?

情态动词may(might)的用法

表示允许或征求对方的许可,有“可以”的意思 e.g. You may go now.

【注】回答带有may的疑问句时,否定式常用must not(mustn’t),表示“不可

以”、“禁止”的意思 e.g. —May I take this magazine out of the

reading-room?—No, you mustn’t.

表示说话人的猜测,认为某一件事“或许”、“可能”发生e.g. You may be

right.

Might也可以代替may,表示现在时间的动作,但语气较为婉转客气或更加不

肯定

e.g. It might rain this afternoon.

情态动词must和have to的用法

表示“必须”,“应当” e.g. We must be strict in our work.

must的否定形式must not\mustn’t,表示“不可以”、“禁止”的意思,语气比较

强烈。

回答must的疑问句时,否定式常用need not\needn’t或don’t have,表示“不

必”、“用不着” e.g. —Must we hand in our exercise today?

—No,you needn’t.

表示说话人对事物的推测,比may语气肯定得多,意为“一定”、“准是”

e.g. She must know how to solve the problem.

have to表示“不得不”、“必须”的意思,它比must更含有“客观条件时的必须如

此做”的意思,并有较多的时态 e.g. She has to do a lot of

housework every day.

情态动词should的用法

表示劝告、建议,常译为“应当”e.g. You should listen to the doctor’s advice.

表示预测,常译为“可能”e.g. They should be here by now.

情态动词need的用法

need作为情态动词,主要用于否定句和疑问句中,表示“需要”、“必须”

e.g. You needn’t come here so early tomorrow.

need可用作实义动词,其否定形式要借助don’t,doesn’t或didn’t;疑问形式

要借助do,does或did e.g. Do you need any help?

情态动词will\would的用法

用于疑问句,一般用于第二人称,表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问

e.g. Will you have another cup of coffee?

表示“意愿”、“决心”等,可用于各种人称e.g. I’ll do my best.

用would时语气比will委婉 e.g. Would you please pass me the ruler?

情态动词shall的用法

在疑问句中,情态动词shall用于第一、三人称,表示说话人征求对方的

意见或向对方请示 e.g. Shall we go out for a walk?

短语动词的类型

动词+介词(用作及物动词,后跟宾语),此类短语动词有wait for,look for,

look after,look at,look into,agree to,agree with,hear from等 e.g.

He looked after us very well.

动词+副词(有的用作及物动词,有的用作不及物动词),此类短语有find out,

give up,hand in,hurry up,knock down,leave behind,look out,look up,

put on,slow down,think over,try on,try out,wake up,work out等e.g. He called up the man.

【注】当这类短语动词的宾语是名词时,它可以置于短语动词之后, 置于

短语动词之中。但若宾语是代词担任时,则其只能置于短语动词之中。 e.g.

Can I try them on, please?

动词+副词+介词 此类短语有catch up with,come out of,do away with,

get down to,get on with,keep up with,look forward to,put up with等

e.g. I can’t put up with these noisy people.

动词+名词+介词 此类短语有catch hold of,have pity on,make friends

with,make fun of,make room for,pay a visit to,pay attention to,play a

part in,take care of,take interest in,take part in,take hold of等 e.g. The elder sister takes care of the young children.

动词+介词+名词 此类短语有come to life,bring to an end,go to bed,take

by surprise,set on fire,get in touch等 e.g. The cigarette set the house

on fire.

be+形容词+介词 此类短语有be afraid of,be fond of,be angry with/at,

be strict with,be good at,be worried about,be weak in,be interested in,

be proud of,be tired of,be sick of,be surprised at等e.g. She was

afraid of snakes.

及物动词和不及物动词

及物动词必须带宾语,表示动作的对象 e.g. I like music.

不及物动词不能或不需带宾语 e.g. The wind is blowing

hard.

多数动词既可作及物动词,又可作不及物动词

e.g. I hear your father has left Beijing for Tokyo.(及物动词) \ When did he

leave?(不及物动词)

动词的基本形式 动词有四种基本形式:动词原形、过去式、过去分词和现在

分词

规则动词的过去式和过去分词是在原形动词后面加-ed构成,现在分词是在原

形动词后面加-ing构成

篇五:初中英语语法详解与训练——动词用法详解

初中英语分类练习

——动词部分

【复习目标】

▲掌握动词的种类情况。

▲掌握动词不定式的用法。 

【课前准备】

●要求学生对所学动词进行归类记忆。 

【知识要点】

(一)动词的种类

动词是表示动作或状态的词,按其词义和在句子中的作用可分为行为动词,连系动词,助动词和情态动词。

1.行为动词

行为动词可分为及物动词 (vt)和不及物动词(vi),及物动词表示动作或状态,有完整的词义,能单独作谓语,后跟宾语;不及物动词表示动作或状态,有完整的词义,能单独作谓语,但后面不能直接跟宾语,如要带宾语则与介词或副词构成短语。

如:

More and more people study English.(vt)

The students are listening to the teacher carefully.(vi)

2.连系动词

连系动词本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语。常用的连系动词有 be, get, turn, become, look, feel, grow, seem, sound, taste, smell等。 如:

Our country is becoming stronger and stronger.

It feels damp. 

3.助动词

助动词本身无词义,不能单独作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示否定,疑问及动词的时态、语态、人称和数等语法特征,助动词有 be,do,have,shall,will等。 如:

How do you usually come to school?

The children are playing yo-yo now. 

4.情态动词

情态动词本身有一定的意义,但不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词原形一起构成谓语,表示说话人的语气和情态。情态动词没有人称和数的变化。情态动词有 can

(could),may(might),must, need, ought to, dare等。

如:

Can I help you?

- Must we go now? –No, you needn't .

a. can与be able to的用法有所区别。can只用于一般现在时和过去时,指本身有能力的“能”;be able to用于各种时态均可,指须经过努力而“能”。

b. must与have/has to的用法。must表示说话人主观认为“必须”,只用于一般现在时和一般将来时;have/has to表示客观需要,意为“不得不”,它可用于各种时态。 c.need和dare既可作情态动词也可作行为动词。

(二)动词不定式

动词不定式 to do没有人称和数的变化,在句中不能独立作谓语,但可以和助动词或情态动词构成谓语,又可以在句子中作宾语、宾语补足语、状语、定语、主语、表语等。但它毕竟是动词,因此,具有动词的许多特点,如它可以有自己的宾语或状语构成不定式短语。 1.作主语。 如:

To learn English is very important.

但实际上不定式作主语常用 it来作形式主语,而将不定式移至谓语动词后作真正的主语。 如上句可表达为:

It's very important to learn English. 

2.作表语。 如:

My idea is to ring him up at once. 

3.作宾语。 如:

I have decided to go to Binjiang Primary School. 

4.作宾语补足语。

a. ask, want, teach, tell, know, would like, allow等动词后面接动词不定式作宾语补足语。

如: The policemen asked him to get off the bus.

b. hear, see, look at, feel, watch, notice, listen to等动词后接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。

如: We often see Miss Li clean the classroom.

c. let, make, have这些使役动词后接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语。但在被动语态中这些不带to的都须带上to。

如: In those days the bosses often made the workers work day and night. d.动词help接动词不定式作宾语补足语,可带to也可不带to。

如: Can you help me (to) carry the heavy bag? 

5.作定语。

a.与被修饰词有动宾关系。如:I have something important to tell you.但如果不定式动词为不及物动词,后面的介词千万不要省略。

如: Maybe they have three rooms to live in.

b.与被修饰词有主谓关系。

如: Mr Liang is always the first to come and the last to leave.

c.与被修饰之间只有修饰关系。

如: I have no time to play cards. 

6.作状语,表示目的、原因、方法、方向、结果等。

如: I'll go to meet my friend at the railway station. 

7.不定式复合结构“for sb. to do sth” 作主语时,常用“It is +adj+ for

of sb. to do sth”的句式。形容词good, bad, polite, unkind, kind, ice, clever, right, wrong, careful等用“It is +adj +of sb. to do sth.”

其他形容词用 for。

如:

It's dangerous for you to ride so fast.

It's very kind of you to help me. 

8.动词不定式与疑问句who, what, which, when, how, where, whether等连用。 如: I don't know when to start.

He didn't tell me where to go.

但上面结构相当于一个从句,故上述句子也可表达为:

I don't know when we'll start.

He didn't tell me where he would go. 

注意:

a.有些动词或动词短语不能带不定式,只能接动词的-ing形式。

如: enjoy, finish, keep, mind, miss(错过),be busy, go on, keep on, be worth, practise等。

如: The peasants are busy picking apples.

Would you mind my opening the door?

b.有些动词后可接不定式,也可接动词的-ing形式,但意思不同。

如: Lu Jian forgot to post the letter.(该寄但还没做)

Lu Jian forgot posting the letter.(已经寄过信了)

They stopped to sing a song.(停止在做的工作而去做另一件工作)

They stopped singing.(停止正在做的工作)

“主谓一致”解题指导

一、主谓一致

主谓一致有许多原则,概括起来不外乎三种一致原则,即语法形式一致,概念一致(语言内容上一致),毗邻一致(谓语动词的单复数形式和紧位于其前的主语一致)。

1. 语法形式一致

(1)单数主语、单个动词不定式、动名词短语以及句子作主语,谓语动词要用单数形式。复数主语,用and或both?and连接的动词不定式短语、动名词短语以及主语从句作主语,谓语动词则用复数形式。例如:

1) The performance was very funny.

2) Serving the people is my great happiness.

3) Whether we’ll go depends on the weather.

4) Many natural materials are becoming scarce.

5) Both you and I are students.

6) What I think and what I seek have been fairly reflected in my paper.

(2)由as well as, with, along with, like, together with, rather than, except, but, including, accompanied by, plus, besides, in addition to, no less than 等引起的结构跟在主语后面,不能看作是并列主语,该主语不受这些词组引导的插入语的影响,主语如是单数,其谓语动词仍然用单数形式。例如:

1) My mother, as well as my father, has a key to the office.

2) The man together with his wife and children sits there watching TV.

3) His sister no less than you is wrong.

4) The reading course book, plus its reference books, is helpful to college students.

(3)有些代词只能指单数可数名词,当它们在句子中作主语时,尽管在意义上是多数,谓语动词仍要用单数形式。这类代词有either, neither, each, one, the other, another, somebody, someone, something, anyone, anything, anybody, everyone, everything, everybody, no one, nothing, nobody等。例如:

1) Neither likes the friends of the other. (两人都不喜欢对方的朋友。)

2) Everything around us is matter. (我们周围的所有东西都是物质。)

(4)在neither of与either of的结构里,一般语法书都认为谓语动词可用单数形式也可用复数形式,但在美国的TOEFL考试内要求用单数形式。例如:

1) Neither of them was in good health, but both worked very hard.

2) Has either of them been seen recently?

(5)当and连结的两个名词是指同一个人或同一件事,and后的名词前没有冠词,谓语动词应该用单数形式;在and后面的名词前有冠词,谓语就用复数形式。例如:

1)The bread and butter is served for breakfast. (早饭供应黄油面包。)

2)The bread and the butter are on sale. (正在出售黄油和面包。)

(6)当one of结构作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

1)One of those students has passed the examination.

2)A series of pre-recorded tapes has been prepared for language laboratory use.

(7)plenty of, half of, a lot of, lots of等 + 可数与不可数名词作主语时,不可数名词的谓语只用单数,可数名词的谓语视可数名词的单复数而定。例如:

1)Half of this building is to be completed by spring.

2)Half of the buildings have been painted completely.

3)There is plenty of water in the pail.

4)There are plenty of eggs in the box.

(8)如果名词词组中心词是“分数或百分数 + of + 名词”,谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于of后的名词或代词的单、复数形式。例如:

1)Over three-quarters of the swampland has been reclaimed.

2)Two-thirds of the people present are against the plan.

(9)定语从句谓语动词的单复数形式应与先行词一致。例如:

1)He is one of the men who were chosen to represent the group.

2)“Keep cool” is the first of the rules that are to be remembered in an accident.

注:当one之前有the only等限定词修饰时,定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.

2.概念一致(语言内容上一致)

(1)有些集合名词如crowd, family, team, orchestra(管弦乐队), group, government, committee, class, school, union, firm, staff, public等,它们作主语时,谓语动词的数要根据语言内容而定。如果它们作为一个集体单位时,动词用单数形式,如就其中的各个成员来说,则谓语用复数形式。例如:

1)His family is going to move.

2)His family are very well.

3)The public is / are requested not to leave litter in the park.

注:如这类词后跟有定语从句时,定语从句的谓语动词也遵循概念一致的原则,强调具体成员时,谓语动词用复数,关系代词用who; 强调整体时,谓语动词用单数,关系代词用which。例如:

1)The government who were responsible for this event attempted to find a solution.

2)The government which was responsible for this event attempted to find a solution.

(2)有些表示总称意义的名词,形式上是单数,而意义上却是复数,谓语动词要用复数形式,如people, police, militia, cattle, poultry(家禽)等。例如:

1)Cattle were allowed to graze on the village common.

2)The police are searching for a tall dark man with a beard.

(3)有些名词形式上是复数,而意义上却是单数。如news, means, works.还有许多以ics结尾的学科名称,如economics, physics, mechanics, politics等,它们作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

1)Politics is a complicated business.

2)Here is the news.

(4)复数主语与each连用时,应不受each的影响,谓语动词仍用复数形式。例如:

4) The old workers and the young each have their own tools.

(5)表示重量、度量、衡量、价值的复数名词作主语,谓语动词常用单数形式。例如:

1) Twenty miles is a long way to walk.

2) Three pints isn’t enough to get me drunk.

(6)国家、单位和书报的名称,作为一个单一的概念,其谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:

1)War and Peace is the longest book I’ve read.

(8)the +形容词作主语时,如主语指的是一类人,谓语动词用复数形式;如果指的是单个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

1) The blind are taught trades in special schools.

2) The departed was a good friend of his.

3.毗邻一致(就近原则)

(1)由连词or, neither?or, either?or, not only ? also, nor等连接的并列主语,谓语动词的单复数形式按毗邻一致的原则,与贴近它的主语一致。例如:

1) He or you have taken my pen.

2) Either you or he is no telling the truth.

3) Not only the switches but also the old wiring has been changed.

(2)在there be 的结构中,谓语动词的单复数形式一般也采取就近原则。例如:

1)There is a desk and four benches in the office.

2)There are two chairs and a desk in the office.